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SECO amends 26 individual listings under Venezuela sanctions

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24 November 2021 International sanction 2021

Updated sanctions report

The Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research EAER has amended Annex 1 to the Regulation of 28. March 2018 on measures against Venezuela (RS 946.231.178.5) published.

On the 23rd. On November 11, 2021, the Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research EAER amended the list of persons, companies and organizations sanctioned in this context. The change is directly applicable in Switzerland. The WBF has therefore adapted the sanctions database SESAM (SECO Sanctions Management), which is relevant for Switzerland, and published the adaptation on its website. The change will take effect on the 24th. March 2021 at 6:00 p.m.

Financial intermediaries are invited to block the corresponding assets immediately and to report such business relationships to SECO in accordance with the provisions of the regulation. The notification to SECO does not exempt a financial intermediary from immediately reporting to the Anti-Money Laundering Reporting Office in accordance with Article 9 of the Anti-Money Laundering Act if conditions are met.

The following existing designations were amended:

SSID: 290-38374 Name: Néstor Luis Reverol Torres
Sex: M DOB: 28 Oct 1964
Justification: Minister for Interior, Justice and PeaceElectrical Energy since 2016. Also appointed asOct 2020, Vice-President of Public Works and Services and Executive Secretary of the Electrical General Staff insince Apr 2019. Former Commander General of the Bolivarian National Guard, he was promoted toMinister for Interior, Justice and Peace from 2016 until Oct 2020. General in Chief of the Bolivarian National Guard insince Aug 2020. Responsible for serious human rights violations, including the torture of (political) prisoners, and the repression of the democratic opposition in Venezuela, including the prohibition and repression of political demonstrations, committed by security forces under his command. Modifications: Listed on 28 Mar 2018, amended on 7 Aug 2019, 22 Nov 2019, 27 Nov 2020, 24 Nov 2021

SSID: 290-38389 Name: Antonio José Benavides Torres
Sex: M DOB: 13 Jun 1961
Justification: Member of the non-democratically elected National Assembly. Chief of the Capital District (Distrito Capital) Government until Jan 2018. General Commander of the Bolivarian National Guard until 21 Jun 2017. Involved in the repression of civil society and democratic opposition in Venezuela, and responsible for serious human rights violations committed by the Bolivarian National Guard under his command. His actions and policies as General Commander of the Bolivarian National Guard, including the Bolivarian National Guard taking the lead in the policing of civilian demonstrations and publicly advocating that military courts should have jurisdiction over civilians, have undermined the rule of law in Venezuela. Modifications: Listed on 28 Mar 2018, amended on 7 Aug 2019, 27 Nov 2020, 24 Nov 2021

SSID: 290-38404 Name: Diosdado Cabello Rondón
Sex: M DOB: 15 Apr 1963
Justification: Member of the non-democratically elected National Assembly, former President of the Constituent Assembly and First Vice PresidentVice-President of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV). Involved in undermining democracy and the rule of law in Venezuela, including by using the media to publicly attack and threaten political opposition, other media and civil society. Modifications: Listed on 28 Mar 2018, amended on 16 Nov 2018, 7 Aug 2019, 24 Nov 2021

SSID: 290-39311 Name: Jesús Rafael Suárez Chourio
Sex: M DOB: 19 Jul 1962
Justification: Commander in ChiefPresident of the Venezuelan BolivarianDefence and Security Committee of the non-democratically elected National ArmyAssembly since Jan 2021. Former Chief of the General Staff toof the Commander-in-Chief, formerCommander- in-Chief of the Armed Forces (between Jul 2019 and Sep 2020). Former Commander in Chief of the Venezuelan Bolivarian National Army (until Jul 2019). Former General Commander of the Venezuelan Bolivarian National Army and former Commander of Venezuela’s Comprehensive Defence Region of the Central Zone (REDI Central). Responsible for serious human rights violations by forces under his command during his tenure as General Commander of the Venezuelan Bolivarian National Army, including the use of excessive force and the mistreatment of detainees. He has targeted the democratic opposition and supported the use of military courts to try civilian protestors. Modifications: Listed on 10 Jul 2018, amended on 7 Aug 2019, 22 Nov 2019, 27 Nov 2020, 24 Nov 2021

SSID: 290-39323 Name: Delcy Eloina Rodríguez Gómez
Sex: W DOB: 18 May 1969
Justification: Vice PresidentVice-President of Venezuela, formerMinister of the Economy, Finances and Trade. Former President of the illegitimate Constituent Assembly and former member of the Presidential Commission for the illegitimate National Constituent Assembly. Her actions onin the Presidential Commission and then as President of the illegitimate Constituent Assembly have undermined democracy and the rule of law in Venezuela, including usurping the powers of the National Assembly and using them to target the opposition and to prevent them from taking part in the political process. Modifications: Listed on 10 Jul 2018, amended on 7 Aug 2019, 27 Nov 2020, 24 Nov 2021

SSID: 290-39357 Name: Xavier Antonio Moreno Reyes
Sex: M
Justification: Secretary-General of the National Electoral Council (CNE) from 2009 until Jun 2020. In thisthat role, Moreno Reyes facilitated, legitimised and gave credibility to CNE decisions, since the Secretary-General of the CNE has a role responsible for approvingin agenda-setting and formalising decisions. Moreno Reyes remained Secretary-General of CNE decisions which havewhile democracy was severely undermined and the independent role of the CNE within the electoral process was compromised. He is therefore responsible for undermining democracy in Venezuela, including facilitating the establishment of the illegitimate Constituent Assembly and the manipulation of the electoral process. Modifications: Listed on 10 Jul 2018, amended on 7 Aug 2019, 27 Nov 2020, 24 Nov 2021

SSID: 290-41001 Name: Rafael Ramón Blanco Marrero
Sex: M DOB: 28 Feb 1968 Identification document: ID card No. V-6250588, Venezuela Justification: DeputyDivision General of the Venezuelan Bolivarian National Army since 5 Jul 2019. Former deputy Director of the Directorate-General of Military Counter-Intelligence (Dirección General de Contrainteligencia Militar (DGCIM)) since at least Dec 2018 and Division General of the Venezuelan Bolivarian National Army since 5 Jul 2019.DGCIM)). Responsible for serious human rights violations, including torture, the use of excessive force and the mistreatment of detainees in DGCIM facilities, that were committed by DGCIM officials under his command. Linked to the death of Captain Acosta. Modifications: Listed on 11 Oct 2019, amended on 27 Nov 2020, 24 Nov 2021

SSID: 290-41028 Name: Hannover Esteban Guerrero Mijares
Sex: M DOB: 14 Jan 1971
Justification: Second Commander and Chief of Staff of the 35th Military Police Brigade since Aug 2020. Head of Investigations at the Directorate-General of Military Counter- Intelligence (Dirección General de Contrainteligencia Militar (DGCIM)) from at least Apr 2019 to Aug 2019. As Head of Investigations, he supervised the DGCIM facility in Boleita. Responsible for serious human rights violations, including torture, the use of excessive force and the ill-treatment of detainees committed by himself and by officials under his command, particularly in Boleita. Linked to the death of Captain Acosta. Modifications: Listed on 11 Oct 2019, amended on 27 Nov 2020, 24 Nov 2021

SSID: 290-42942 Name: Gladys del Valle Requena
Sex: W DOB: 9 Nov 1952 POB: Puerto Santo, Sucre, Venezuela Identification document: ID card No. V-4114842, Venezuela
Justification: Member and, since 26 Oct 2018,of the non-democratically elected National Assembly and former member and the Second Vice-President of the non-recognised National Constituent Assembly (ANC). In her leading role in the non-recognised ANC, she has undermined democracy and the rule of law in Venezuela including by signing the decree that stripped the president of the National Assembly of Venezuela, Juan Guaidó, of his parliamentary immunity. Modifications: Listed on 7 Jul 2020, amended on 27 Nov 2020, 24 Nov 2021

SSID: 290-42950 Name: Tania Valentina Díaz González
Sex: W DOB: 18 Jun 1963 POB: Caracas, Distrito Capital, Venezuela Identification document: ID card No. V-6432672, Venezuela
Justification: Member and, since 4 Jan 2018,of the non-democratically elected National Assembly and former First Vice-President of the non-recognised National Constituent Assembly (ANC). In her leading role in the non-recognised ANC she has undermined democracy and the rule of law in Venezuela, including by signing the decree that stripped the president of the National Assembly of Venezuela, Juan Guaidó, of his parliamentary immunity. Modifications: Listed on 7 Jul 2020, amended on 27 Nov 2020, 24 Nov 2021

SSID: 290-42957 Name: Elvis Eduardo Hidrobo Amoroso
Sex: M DOB: 4 Aug 1963 POB: Caracas, Distrito Capital, Venezuela Identification document: ID card No. V-7659695, Venezuela
Justification: Comptroller General, since 23 Oct 2018, and former First and Second Vice- President of the non-recognised National Constituent Assembly (ANC). His actions have undermined democracy and the rule of law in Venezuela, including by banning opposition members from holding public office for 15 years and leading the non-recognised ANC, signing the “law"law against hatred”,hatred", justifying the removal of a legally-elected opposition governor and banning Juan Guaidó from running for any public office. Modifications: Listed on 7 Jul 2020, amended on 27 Nov 2020, 24 Nov 2021

SSID: 290-42992 Name: Luis Eduardo Parra Rivero
Sex: M DOB: 7 Jul 1978 Identification document: ID card No. V-14211633, Venezuela Justification: Member and illegitimately elected President of the non-democratically elected National Assembly. As a member of the National AssemblyAssembly elected in 2015, he staged his election as the President of the National Assembly on 5 Jan 2020, thereby undermining democracy and the rule of law in Venezuela. The election took place while entry of several parliamentarians to the premises of the National Assembly was blocked by military police, and without a quorum being reached. Therefore, opposition members had to organise themselves outside of the premises of the National Assembly to re-elect Juan Guaidó as its President. Shortly after the staged election of ParraParra Rivero, supported by the regime’s political party (PSUV), Parra Rivero was welcomed by Maduro and the non- recognised National Constituent Assembly (ANC). Modifications: Listed on 7 Jul 2020, amended on 24 Nov 2021

SSID: 290-42998 Name: Franklyn Leonardo Duarte
Sex: M DOB: 15 May 1977 Identification document: ID card No. V-3304045, Venezuela Justification: Member of the non-democratically elected National Assembly. Former member and illegitimately elected first Vice-President of the National AssemblyAssembly elected in 2015. As a member of the National AssemblyAssembly elected in 2015, he staged his election as the first Vice-President of the National Assembly on 5 Jan 2020, thereby undermining democracy and the rule of law in Venezuela. The election took place while entry of several parliamentarians to the premises of the National Assembly was blocked by military police, and without a quorum being reached. Therefore, opposition members had to organise themselves outside of the premises of the National Assembly to re-elect Juan Guaidó as its President. Shortly after the staged election of Duarte, supported by the regime’s political party (PSUV), the election of the Board of Directors of the National Assembly was welcomed by Maduro and the non-recognised National Constituent Assembly (ANC). Modifications: Listed on 7 Jul 2020, amended on 27 Nov 2020, 24 Nov 2021

SSID: 290-43004 Name: José Gregorio Noriega Figueroa
Sex: M DOB: 21 Feb 1969 Identification document: ID card No. V-8348784, Venezuela Justification: Member of the non-democratically elected National Assembly. Former member and illegitimately elected second Vice-President of the National AssemblyAssembly elected in 2015. Illegitimately appointed director of the ad-hoc board of the political party Voluntad Popular. As a member of the National Assembly elected in 2015, he staged his election as the second Vice-President of the National Assembly on 5 Jan 2020, thereby undermining democracy and the rule of law in Venezuela. The election took place while entry of several parliamentarians to the premises of the National Assembly was blocked by military police, and without a quorum being reached. Therefore, opposition members had to organise themselves outside of the premises of the National Assembly to re-elect Juan Guaidó as its President. Shortly after the staged election of Noriega, supported by the regime’s political party (PSUV), the election of the Board of Directors of the National Assembly was welcomed by Maduro and the non-recognised National Constituent Assembly (ANC). In Jul 2020, Noriega, helped by the Venezuelan Supreme Court of Justice (Tribunal Supremo de Justicia (TSJ)), illegitimately took over the leadership of the political party Voluntad Popular, thereby further undermining democracy in Venezuela. Modifications: Listed on 7 Jul 2020, amended on 27 Nov 2020, 24 Nov 2021

SSID: 290-44371 Name: Remigio Ceballos Ichaso
Sex: M DOB: 1 May 1963 Identification document: ID card No. V-6557495, Venezuela Justification: CommanderFormer commander of the Operational and Strategic Command of the Bolivarian National Armed Forces of Venezuela (Comando Estratégico Operacional Fuerzas Armadas Nacionales Bolivarianas (CEOFANB)), the highest organ in the Venezuelan Armed Forces, since Jun 2017.Forces (Jun 2017–Jul 2021). CEOFANB controls the Bolivarian National Armed Forces (FANB) and the Bolivarian National Guard. CEOFANB is also responsible for coordinating FANB interventions in demonstrations. In his position as commander of CEOFANBCEOFANB, he was responsible for serious human rights violations, including the use of excessive force and inhuman and degrading treatment by officials of the FANB and by subordinate forces under his command, including the Bolivarian National Guard. Various sources, including the Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, attribute human rights violations to FANB and the Bolivarian National Guard. Modifications: Listed on 19 Mar 2021, amended on 24 Nov 2021

SSID: 290-44396 Name: Luis Fernando Damiani Bustillos
Sex: M DOB: 27 Apr 1946
Justification: Judge of the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo de Justicia (TSJ)). As a member of the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court, he is responsible for actions, statements and rulings that have usurped the constitutional powers of the National Assembly and undermined the opposition’s electoral rights including the unilateral appointment by the Supreme Court of the National Electoral Council (Consejo Nacional Electoral (CNE)) in Jun 2020 and the suspension and unilateral replacement of the leadership of three of the main democratic opposition parties in Jun and Jul 20202020, as well as the extension of the ruling on Acción Democrática for one more year in May 2021. His actions have therefore undermined democracy and the rule of law in Venezuela, and he has supported and facilitated the undermining of democracy and the rule of law by the executive’sexecutive branch. Modifications: Listed on 19 Mar 2021, amended on 24 Nov 2021

SSID: 290-44401 Name: Lourdes Benicia Suárez Anderson
Sex: W DOB: 7 Mar 1965
Justification: President of the Constitutional Chamber and first Vice-president of the Supreme Court since 5 Feb 2021. Judge of the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo de Justicia (TSJ)).TSJ)) since Dec 2005. As a member of the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court, she is responsible for actions, statements and rulings that have usurped the constitutional powers of the National Assembly and undermined the opposition’s electoral rights including the unilateral appointment by the Supreme Court of the National Electoral Council (Consejo Nacional Electoral (CNE)) in Jun 2020 and the suspension and unilateral replacement of the leadership of three of the main democratic opposition parties in Jun and Jul 20202020, as well as the extension of the ruling on Acción Democrática for one more year in May 2021. Her actions have therefore undermined democracy and the rule of law in Venezuela, and she has supported and facilitated the undermining of democracy and the rule of law by the executive’sexecutive branch. Modifications: Listed on 19 Mar 2021, amended on 24 Nov 2021

SSID: 290-44406 Name: Calixto Antonio Ortega Ríos Sex: M DOB: 12 Oct 1950
Justification: Judge of the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo de Justicia (TSJ)). As a member of the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court, he is responsible for actions, statements and rulings that have usurped the constitutional powers of the National Assembly and undermined the opposition’s electoral rights including the unilateral appointment by the Supreme Court of the National Electoral Council (Consejo Nacional Electoral (CNE)) in Jun 2020 and the suspension and unilateral replacement of the leadership of three of the main democratic opposition parties in Jun and Jul 20202020, as well as the extension of the ruling on Acción Democrática for one more year in May 2021. His actions have therefore undermined democracy and the rule of law in Venezuela, and he has supported and facilitated the undermining of democracy and the rule of law by the executive’sexecutive branch. Modifications: Listed on 19 Mar 2021, amended on 24 Nov 2021

SSID: 290-44411 Name: René Alberto Degraves Almarza
Sex: M
Justification: Judge of the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo de Justicia (TSJ)). As a member of the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court, he is responsible for actions, statements and rulings that have usurped the constitutional powers of the National Assembly and undermined the opposition’s electoral rights including the unilateral appointment by the Supreme Court of the National Electoral Council (Consejo Nacional Electoral (CNE)) in Jun 2020 and the suspension and unilateral replacement of the leadership of three of the main democratic opposition parties in Jun and Jul 20202020, as well as the extension of the ruling on Acción Democrática for one more year in May 2021. His actions have therefore undermined democracy and the rule of law in Venezuela, and he has supported and facilitated the undermining of democracy and the rule of law by the executive’sexecutive branch. Modifications: Listed on 19 Mar 2021, amended on 24 Nov 2021

SSID: 290-44415 Name: Arcadio Delgado Rosales
Sex: M DOB: 23 Sep 1954
Justification: Judge and Vice-President of the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo de Justicia (TSJ)). As a member of the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court, he is responsible for actions, statements and rulings that have usurped the constitutional powers of the National Assembly and undermined the opposition’s electoral rights including the unilateral appointment by the Supreme Court of the National Electoral Council (Consejo Nacional Electoral (CNE)) in Jun 2020 and the suspension and unilateral replacement of the leadership of three of the main democratic opposition parties in Jun and Jul 20202020, as well as the extension of the ruling on Acción Democrática for one more year in May 2021. His actions have therefore undermined democracy and the rule of law in Venezuela, and he has supported and facilitated the undermining of democracy and the rule of law by the executive’sexecutive branch. Modifications: Listed on 19 Mar 2021, amended on 24 Nov 2021

SSID: 290-44420 Name: Carmen Auxiliadora Zuleta de Merchán
Sex: W DOB: 13 Dec 1947
Justification: Judge of the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo de Justicia (TSJ)). As a member of the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court, she is responsible for actions, statements and rulings that have usurped the constitutional powers of the National Assembly and undermined the opposition’s electoral rights including the unilateral appointment by the Supreme Court of the National Electoral Council (Consejo Nacional Electoral (CNE)) in Jun 2020 and the suspension and unilateral replacement of the leadership of three of the main democratic opposition parties in Jun and Jul 20202020, as well as the extension of the ruling on Acción Democrática for one more year in May 2021. Her actions have therefore undermined democracy and the rule of law in Venezuela, and she has supported and facilitated the undermining of democracy and the rule of law by the executive’sexecutive branch. Modifications: Listed on 19 Mar 2021, amended on 24 Nov 2021

SSID: 290-44425 Name: Indira Maira Alfonzo Izaguirre
Sex: W DOB: 29 Apr 1968 POB: La Guaira, La Guaira State, Venezuela Identification document: ID card No. V-6978710, Venezuela
Justification: ChairwomanPresident of the Electoral Chamber of the Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo de Justicia (TSJ)) since May 2021. Former chairwoman of the National Electoral Council (Consejo Nacional Electoral (CNE)) sinceCNE)), appointed on 13 Jun 2020. Former member of the Electoral Chamber and Plenary Chamber of the Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo de Justicia (TSJ)),TSJ), Second Vice-Chairwoman of the TSJ from 2015 until 24 Feb 2017, Vice-Chairwoman of the TSJ from 24 Feb 2017 until 12 Jun 2020. As member of the Electoral Chamber of the TSJ, Indira Maira Alfonzo Izaguirre is responsible for the actions taken against the then newly-electednewly elected National Assembly in Dec 2015, resulting in the impossibility for the National Assembly to exert its legislative power. Moreover, she accepted her appointment as the chairwoman of the CNE in Jun 2020 by the TSJ although this prerogative belongs to the National Assembly. In thisthat role she prepared and supervised the non-democratic elections of the National Assembly held on 6 Dec 2020 and participated in the change of 30 Jun 2020 to the electoral norms for these electionsthose elections, without formally leaving the TSJ (temporary permit to integrate the CNE). After the renewal of the CNE in May 2021, she returned to the TSJ. Her actions have therefore undermined democracy and the rule of law in Venezuela. Modifications: Listed on 19 Mar 2021, amended on 24 Nov 2021

SSID: 290-44433 Name: Leonardo Enrique Morales Poleo
Sex: M
Justification: Vice PresidentFormer Vice-President of the National Electoral Council (Consejo Nacional Electoral (CNE)) since 7 Aug 2020 and President of the Political Participation and Financing Commission. Leonardo EnriqueCommission (Aug 2020–May 2021). Morales Poleo was appointed Vice PresidentVice-President of the CNE and President of the Political Participation and Financing Commission on 7 Aug 2020 by the Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo de Justicia (TSJ)) although this prerogative belongs to the National Assembly. Moreover, just beforeprior to his appointment he served in the Advanced Progressive Party (Avanzada progresista). As member of the CNE, he fully took part in the supervision of the electoral process that led to the non-democratic elections of the National Assembly on 6 Dec 2020. His actions have therefore undermined democracy and the rule of law in Venezuela. Modifications: Listed on 19 Mar 2021, amended on 24 Nov 2021

SSID: 290-44451 Name: Carlos Ramón Enrique Carvallo Guevara
Sex: M Identification document: ID card No. V-10132041, Venezuela
Justification: President of state enterprise Corporación Ecosocialista Ezequiel Zamora (CORPOEZ) since Mar 2021. Division General, and Deputy Director of the Directorate-General of Military Counter-Intelligence (Dirección General de Contrainteligencia Militar (DGCIM)) sincefrom 21 Aug 20202020 until 11 Mar 2021. Successor of General Rafael Ramón Blanco Marrero. Previously, Carlos Ramón Enrique Carvallo Guevara served for the DGCIM in Los Andes region, and held an upper ranksrank position in the Bolivarian National Guard. Responsible for serious human rights violations in Venezuela committed by DGCIM officials under his command. In the recently published findings of the Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, DGCIM is characterizedcharacterised as an institution directly responsible for carrying out severe human rights violations. Modifications: Listed on 19 Mar 2021, amended on 24 Nov 2021

SSID: 290-44461 Name: Carlos Enrique Terán Hurtado
Sex: M Identification document: ID card No. V-8042567, Venezuela
Justification: Brigadier General since 5 Jul 2019 and head of the Special Directorate of Criminal Investigation of the Directorate-General of Military Counter-Intelligence (Dirección General de Contrainteligencia Militar (DGCIM)) since 2019from 2019 until 2021. In previous functions, Brigadier General Carlos Enrique Terán Hurtado served as head of the police in Falcón state and head of DGCIM in Táchira state. Responsible for serious human rights violations, including cruel and inhumane treatment of detainees, committed by DGCIM officials under his command. In the detailed findings of the Independent International Fact- Finding Mission on the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, Brigadier General Terán Hurtado is specifically pointed out as one of the responsible actors, and is linked to the captain de la Sotta case. Modifications: Listed on 19 Mar 2021, amended on 24 Nov 2021

SSID: 290-44476 Name: Douglas Arnoldo Rico González
Sex: M DOB: 28 Sep 1969 Identification document: ID card No. V-6864238, Venezuela Justification: Director of the Bureau for Scientific, PenalCriminal, and Criminal Investigation CorpsForensic Investigations (Cuerpo de Investigaciones Científicas, Penales y Criminalísticas (CICPC)) since 5 Feb 2016. BeforePreviously, he acted as CICPC deputy director. Responsible for serious human rights violations, by CICPC officials under his authority. The report of the Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela characterizescharacterises CICPC as an institution that commits systematic human rights violations in VenezuelaVenezuela. CICPC is also involved in extra-judicial killings, according to the report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights released on 16 Jun 2021. Modifications: Listed on 19 Mar 2021, amended on 24 Nov 2021

Links:

FINMA Notice

Data files of updates – PDF, XML

Categories: Sanctions Lists SECO Updates Venezuela sanctions

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