FinCEN Renews Real Estate Geographic Targeting Orders for 12 Metropolitan Areas
Immediate ReleaseOctober 29, 2021WASHINGTON—The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) today announced the renewal of its Geographic Targeting Orders (GTOs) that require U.S. title insurance companies to identify the natural persons behind shell companies used in all-cash purchases of residential real estate. The purchase amount threshold remains $300,000 for each covered metropolitan area.
The terms of this Order are effective beginning November 1, 2021, and ending on April 29, 2022. GTOs continue to provide valuable data on the purchase of residential real estate by persons possibly involved in various illicit enterprises. Renewing the GTOs will further assist in tracking illicit funds and other criminal or illicit activity, as well as inform FinCEN’s future regulatory efforts in this sector.
The GTOs cover certain counties within the following major U.S. metropolitan areas: Boston; Chicago; Dallas-Fort Worth; Honolulu; Las Vegas; Los Angeles; Miami; New York City; San Antonio; San Diego; San Francisco; and Seattle.
FinCEN appreciates the continued assistance and cooperation of the title insurance companies and the American Land Title Association in protecting the real estate markets from abuse by illicit actors.
Any questions about the Orders should be directed to FinCEN’s Regulatory Support Section at FRC@FinCEN.gov.
And the release came with a copy of the GTO, as well as FAQs. Minus the intro section (which takes up a full page), here they are:
1) What does the term “residential real property” mean?
For purposes of the GTOs, “residential real property” means real property (including individual units of condominiums and cooperatives) designed principally for the occupancy of from one to four families.
2) To what extent must a Covered Business verify information about the Beneficial Owner of a Purchaser?
The GTOs require a Covered Business to collect and report certain identifying information about the Beneficial Owner(s) of the Purchaser in a Covered Transaction. For purposes of the GTOs, a “Beneficial Owner” means each individual who, directly or indirectly, owns 25% or more of the equity interests of the Purchaser. The GTOs provide that the Covered Business must obtain and record a copy of the Beneficial Owner’s driver’s license, passport, or other similar identifying documentation.
The Covered Business may reasonably rely on the information provided to it by third parties involved in the Covered Transaction, including the Purchaser or its representatives, in determining whether the individual identified as a Beneficial Owner is in fact a Beneficial Owner.
3) Who is considered a Covered Business’s “agents” for purposes of the GTOs?
FinCEN notes that the recordkeeping and reporting requirements under the GTOs are triggered only when a Covered Business (or its subsidiaries or agents) is involved in a Covered Transaction. In this context, a Covered Business’s “agents” generally refers to people or entities that are authorized by the Covered Business, usually through a contractual relationship, to act on its behalf to provide title insurance underwritten by the Covered Business (or its subsidiaries).
FinCEN also recognizes that a person or entity may be an independent agent of a Covered Business, and thus may act on behalf of multiple title insurance companies. A Covered Business is responsible for the recordkeeping and reporting requirements under the GTOs only when such agents are acting on its behalf in connection with a Covered Transaction.
4) What methods of payment are covered under Section II.A.2.iv of the GTOs?
Section II.A.2.iv of the GTOs, which lists one of the four criteria that triggers a Covered Transaction, provides: “Such purchase is made, at least in part, using currency or a cashier’s check, a certified check, a traveler’s check, a personal check, a business check, or a money order in any form, a funds transfer, or virtual currency.” Accordingly, payment of at least part of the purchase price using one of these methods, such as virtual currency, a wire transfer, a cashier’s check (sometimes referred to as a “bank check,” “official check,” or “treasurer’s check”), a personal check, a business check, or a certified check, triggers a Covered Transaction, assuming the other three criteria listed in Section II.A.2 are met. With respect to information required to be reported in Field 25.z of the FinCEN Currency Transaction Report, the Covered Business should include the total amount of the purchase price of the Covered Transaction. When reporting a purchase of multiple properties in the same Covered Transaction, report total purchase price in Part II, Field 25.z, and price per property in Field 41 for each property.
5) Is there a de minimis exception regarding the methods of payment covered under Section II.A.2.iv of the GTOs?
No. If any part of the purchase price was made using a method of payment specified in Section II.A.2.iv of the GTOs, then the transaction is considered a Covered Transaction (assuming the other three criteria listed in Section II.A.2 are met). FinCEN expects a Covered Business to take reasonable steps to determine whether any part of the purchase price was made using a method of payment specified in Section II.A.2.iv of the GTOs. FinCEN recognizes that in some instances a small percent of the purchase price of a residential real estate transaction may be held by a third party, such as a real estate agent holding an earnest money deposit. A Covered Business may reasonably rely on information provided to it by such third parties.
6) Who is the “individual primarily responsible for representing the Purchaser”?
The “individual primarily responsible for representing the Purchaser” means the individual authorized by the entity to enter legally binding contracts on behalf of the entity.
7) How long must a Covered Business retain records relating to compliance with the GTOs?
Pursuant to the GTOs, a Covered Business must retain all records relating to compliance with the GTOs for at least five years from the last day that the GTOs are effective (including any renewals thereof).
8) To report a Covered Transaction, how must a Covered Business file a FinCEN Currency Transaction Report?
A sample Currency Transaction Report template is located at this link: https://bsaefiling.fincen.treas.gov/docs/GTO/RealEstate_GTO Template.pdf.
(If opening this link in Chrome, please note that you must click the download icon in the top right; once downloaded, you may open the PDF using Adobe Reader.) This Adobe PDF template can be saved and reused. Once a Covered Business has filled out the template for a Covered Transaction, the Covered Business will need to log into the BSA E-Filing System, select Report 112–CTR under the “File FinCEN Reports” section, then choose the “Open Existing Report” option, browse to the saved template, and Sign, Save, and Submit the Currency Transaction Report.