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Who is Bi Sidi Souleman?


Date on which the narrative summary became available on the Committee’s website: 
5 August 2020
Reason for listing: 

Bi Sidi Souleman was listed on 5 August 2020 pursuant to paragraph 20 and paragraph 21 (b) of resolution 2399 (2018), extended by paragraph 5 of resolution 2507 (2020), for engaging in or providing support for acts that undermine the peace, stability or security of the Central African Republic, including acts that threaten or impede the stabilization and reconciliation process or that fuel violence; and being involved in planning, directing, or committing acts in the Central African Republic that violate international human rights law or international humanitarian law, as applicable, or that constitute human rights abuses or violations, including those involving targeting of civilians, ethnic- or religious-based attacks, attacks on civilian objects, including administrative centres, courthouses, schools and hospitals, and abduction and forced displacement.

Additional information: 

President and self-proclaimed “general” of the Retour, Réclamation et Réhabilitation (3R) armed group, Bi Sidi Souleman has engaged in acts threatening the peace, stability and security of the CAR and, in particular, threatening the implementation of the Political Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation in CAR signed on 6 February 2019 in Bangui.
– He and fighters under his command have committed acts that constitute serious violations of international human rights law or international humanitarian law. On 21 May 2019, 3R killed 34 unarmed civilians in three villages (Koundjili, Lemouna and Bohong), summarily executing adult males.
– Under his leadership, 3R elements committed acts involving sexual and gender-based violence. In September 2017, during an attack against Bocaranga, 3R elements raped several women and girls. Between March and April 2020, 3R elements were involved in seven cases of sexual violence in three villages in the Ouham-Pendé prefecture.
– Under his leadership, 3R continued to impede the restoration of state authority in its areas of operation by maintaining illegal taxation systems, especially on transhumance activities and on travelers, and has been involved in the illegal exploitation of gold in the Mambéré-Kadéï and Nana-Mambéré prefectures.
– In 2019, under his leadership, 3R committed its first violations of the Peace Agreement. Bi Sidi Souleman initialy refused to start the disarmament and the demobilization of the 3R fighters supposed to participate in the first special mixed security unit in the west of the CAR and 3R also continued to expand its control over territories forcing MINUSCA into launching an operation in the Ouham-Pendé, Nana-Mambéré, and Mambéré-Kadéï prefectures in  September 2019, as well as in arms trafficking in order to build up its military capabilities and in the recruitment of fighters from abroad.
– In 2020, under his leadership, 3R continued and to commit violations of the Peace agreement and to expand its control over territories in the West. In May 2020, 3R elements occupied the gendarmerie of Besson in the Nana-Mambéré prefecture and former 3R elements deserted the Bouar USMS. On 5 June 2020, Bi Sidi Souleman announced the suspension of the participation of 3R in the Agreement’s follow-up mechanisms until further notice. On 9 June 2020, presumed 3R elements attacked the training camp of the Bouar USMS as well as a joint MINUSCA and national forces checkpoint in Pougol. On 21 June 2020, 3R elements attacked a joint MINUSCA and national forces patrol near Besson resulting in the death of three Central African soldiers.


UN Narrative Summary

Categories: Central African Republic sanctions Narrative Summaries UN Updates


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