October 17, 2016: SECO updates DRC sanctions listings

On Monday, Swiss regulators updated the following sanctions listings for the Democratic Republic of the Congo sanctions program:

SSID: 100-3099 Name: Bwambale Frank Kakolele
Good quality a.k.a.: a) Frank Kakorere b) Frank Kakorere Bwambale c) Aigle Blanc Address: Kinshasa, Congo DR (as of June 2016) Nationality: Congo DR
Justification: Former RCD-ML leader, exercising influence over policies and maintaining command and control over the activities of RCD-ML forces, one of the armed groups and militias referred to in paragraph 20 of Res. 1493 (2003), responsible for trafficking of arms, in violation of the arms embargo. Other information: a) Designation: FARDC General b) Left the CNDP in January 2008. As of June 2011, resides in Kinshasa. Since 2010, Kakolele has been involved in activities apparently on behalf of the DRC government’s Programme de Stabilisation et Reconstruction des Zones Sortant des Conflits Armés (STAREC), including participation in a STAREC mission to Goma and Beni in March 2011. DRC authorities arrested him in December 2013 in Beni, North Kivu Province, for allegedly blocking the DDR processprocess. He left the DRC and lived in Kenya for some time, before being called back by the DRC Government to assist them with the situation in the Territory of Beni. He was arrested in October 2015 in the area of Mambasa for allegedly supporting a Mai Mai group, but no charges were brought and as of June 2016, he lived in Kinshasa. Modifications: Amended on 8 May 2013, 11 Mar 2015, 13 Oct 2016

SSID: 100-3106 Name: Iyamuremye Gaston
DOB: 1948 POB: a) Musanze District, Northern Province, Rwanda b) Ruhengeri, Rwanda Good quality a.k.a.: a) Byiringiro Victor Rumuli b) Victor Rumuri c) Michel Byiringiro Low quality a.k.a.: Rumuli Address: Rwanda (As of December 2014, based in North Kivu ProvinceProvince, Congo DR (as of June 2016) Nationality: Rwanda
Justification: According to multiple sources, including the UNSC DRC Sanctions Committee’s Group of Experts, Gaston Iyamuremye is the second vice president of the FDLR and is considered a core member of the FDLR military and political leadership. Gaston Iyamuremye also ran Ignace Murwanashyaka’s (President of the FDLR) office in Kibua, DRC until December 2009. Other information: a) Designation: a) FDLR Interim President, b) 2nd Vice-President of FDLR-FOCA FDLR-FOCA 1st Vice-President, c) FDLR-FOCA Major General. b) Brigadier General. Modifications: Amended on 11 Mar 2015, 13 Oct 2016


SSID: 100-3131 Name: Katanga Germain
DOB: 28 Apr 1978 POB: Mambasa, Ituri Province, Congo DR Address: Congo DR (in prison) Nationality: Congo DR
Justification: FRPI chief. Involved in weapons transfers, in violation of the arms embargo. According to the Office of the SRSG on Children and Armed Conflict, he was responsible for recruitment and use of children in Ituri from 2002 to 2003. Other information: Appointed General in the FARDC in December 2004. Handed over by the Government of the DRC to the International Criminal Court on 18 October 2007. Convicted in Initially convicted on 23 May 2014 by the ICC to 12 years in prison for war crimes and crimes against humanity. Currently humanity, the ICC Appeals Chamber reduced his sentence and determined that Katanga’s sentence should be completed on 18 January 2016. Although he was detained in the Netherlands for the duration of his trial, Katanga was transferred to a DRC prison in the Netherlands December 2015 and charged for other crimes previously committed in Ituri. Modifications: Amended on 8 May 2013, 11 Mar 2015, 13 Oct 2016
SSID: 100-3136 Name: Lubanga Thomas
POB: Ituri, Congo DR Address: Congo DR (in prison) Nationality: Congo DR Justification: President of the UPC/L, one of the armed groups and militias referred to in paragraph 20 of Res.1493 (2003), involved in the trafficking of arms, in violation of the arms embargo. According to the Office of the SRSG on Children and Armed Conflict, he was responsible for recruitment and use of children in Ituri from 2002 to 2003. Other information: Arrested in Kinshasa in March 2005 for UPC/L involvement in human rights abuses violations. Transferred to the ICC on 17 March 2006. Convicted by the ICC in March 2012 and sentenced to 14 years in prison. On 1 December 2014, ICC appeals judges upheld Lubanga’s conviction and sentence. Currently in sentence.Transferred to a prison facility in the Netherlands DRC on 19 December 2015 to serve out his sentence of imprisonment. Modifications: Amended on 8 May 2013, 11 Mar 2015, 13 Oct 2016

SSID: 100-3150 Name: Mandro Khawa Panga
DOB: 20 Aug 1973 POB: Bunia, Congo DR Good quality a.k.a.: a) Kawa Panga b) Kawa Panga Mandro c) Kawa Mandro d) Yves Andoul Karim e) Mandro Panga Kahwa f) Yves Khawa Panga Mandro Low quality a.k.a.: a) Chief Kahwa b) Kawa Address: Uganda (as of May 2016) Nationality: Congo DR
Justification: Ex-President of PUSIC, one of the armed groups and militias referred to in paragraph 20 of Res. 1493 (2003) involved in arms trafficking, in violation of the arms embargo. According to the Office of the SRSG on Children and Armed Conflict, he was responsible for recruitment and use of children from 2001 to 2002. Other information: Placed in prison in Bunia in April 2005 for sabotage of the Ituri peace process. Arrested by Congolese authorities in October 2005, acquitted by the Court of Appeal in Kisangani, subsequently transferred to the judicial authorities in Kinshasa on new charges of crimes against humanity, war crimes, murder, aggravated assault and battery. In August 2014, a DRC military court in Kisangani convicted him of war crimes and crimes against humanity, sentenced him to nine years in prison, and ordered him to pay approximately USD 85,000 to his victims victims. He served his sentence and resides in Uganda as of May 2016. Modifications: Amended on 8 May 2013, 11 Mar 2015, 13 Oct 2016 

SSID: 100-3166 Name: Mbarushimana Callixte
DOB: 24 Jul 1963 POB: Ndusu/Ruhengeri, Northern Province, Rwanda Nationality: Rwanda
Justification: Executive Secretary of the FDLR and Vice-President of the FDLR military high command until his arrest. Political/Military leader of a foreign armed group operating in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, impeding the disarmament and the voluntary repatriation and resettlement of combatants, per Security Council resolution 1857 (2008) OP 4 (b). Other information: a) Arrested in Paris on 3 October 2010 under ICC warrant for war crimes and crimes against humanity committed by FDLR troops in the Kivus in 2009 and transferred2009. Transferred to The Hague on 25 January 2011, but2011 and released by the ICC in late 20112011. Elected FDLR Executive Secretary on 29 November 2014 for a five-year term. b) Designation: FDLR Executive Secretary. Modifications: Amended on 11 Mar 2015, 13 Oct 2016 


SSID: 100-3193 Name: Mudacumura Sylvestre
DOB: 1954 POB: Cellule Ferege, Gatumba sector, Kibilira commune, Gisenyi prefecture, Rwanda Good quality a.k.a.: a) Mupenzi Bernard b) General Major Mupenzi c) General Mudacumura Low quality a.k.a.: a) Radja b) Pharaoh Address: Kikoma forest, near Bogoyi, Walikale, North KivuKivu Province, Congo DR (as of June 20112016) Nationality: Rwanda
Justification: FDLR Commander, exercising influence over policies, and maintaining command and control over the activities of FDLR forces, one of the armed groups and militias referred to in paragraph 20 of Res. 1493 (2003), involved in trafficking of arms, in violation of the arms embargo. Mudacumura (or staff) was in telephone communication with FDLR leader Murwanashyaka in Germany, including at the time of the Busurungi Massacre May 2009, and military commander Major Guillaume during Umoja Wetu and Kimia II operations in 2009. According to the Office of the SRSG on Children and Armed Conflict, he was responsible for 27 cases of recruitment and use of children by troops under his command in North Kivu from 2002 to 2007. Other information: a) Military commander The International Criminal Court issued an arrest warrant for Mudacumura on 12 July 2012 for nine counts of FDLR-FOCA, also political 1st Vice-President war crimes, including attacking civilians, murder, mutilation, cruel treatment, rape, torture, destruction of property, pillaging and head of FOCA High Command, thus combining overall military outrages against personal dignity, allegedly committed between 2009 and political command functions since the arrest of FDLR leaders 2010 in Europe. As of 2014, based at the FDLR’s headquarters in Nganga, North Kivu DRC. b) Designation: a) FDLR-FOCA Commander b) FDLR-FOCA Lieutenant General. Modifications: Amended on 11 Mar 2015, 13 Oct 2016
SSID: 100-3217 Name: Mukulu Jamil
DOB: a) 1965 b) 1 Jan 1964 POB: Ntoke Village, Ntenjeru Sub County, Kayunga District, Uganda Good quality a.k.a.: a) Steven Alirabaki b) David Kyagulanyi c) Musezi Talengelanimiro d) Mzee Tutu e) Abdullah Junjuaka f) Alilabaki Kyagulanyi g) Hussein Muhammad h) Nicolas Luumu i) Julius Elius Mashauri j) David Amos Mazengo Low quality a.k.a.: a) Professor Musharaf b) Talengelanimiro Address: Uganda (reportedly in prison as of September 2016) Nationality: Uganda
Justification: According to open-source and official reporting, including the UNSC DRC Sanctions Committee’s Group of Experts’ reports, Mr. Jamil Mukulu is the military leader of the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), a foreign armed group operating in the DRC that impedes the disarmament and voluntary repatriation or resettlement of ADF combatants, as described in paragraph 4 (b) of resolution 1857 (2008). The UNSC DRC Sanction Committee’s Group of Experts has reported that Mukulu has provided leadership and material support to the ADF, an armed group operating in the territory of the DRC. According to multiple sources including the UNSC DRC Sanctions Committee’s Group of Experts’ reports, Jamil Mukulu has also continued to exercise influence over the policies, provided financing, and maintained direct command and control over the activities of, ADF forces in the field, including overseeing links with international terrorist networks. Relation: Leader of the ADF (SSID 100-27961) Other information: a) Designation: a) Head of the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), b) Commander, Allied Democratic Forces b) Whereabouts unknown as Arrested in April 2015 in Tanzania and extradited to Uganda in July 2015. As of late 2014; however, he September 2016, Mukulu is believed to be reportedly being held in North Kivu, DRC a police detention cell awaiting his trial for war crimes and grave breaches of the Geneva Convection under Ugandan Law. Modifications: Amended on 8 May 2013, 12 Aug 2014, 11 Mar 2015, 13 Oct 2016

SSID: 100-3237 Name: Mujyambere Leopold
DOB: a) 17 Mar 1962 b) 1966 (approximately) POB: Kigali, Rwanda Low quality a.k.a.: a) Musenyeri b) Achille c) Frere Petrus Ibrahim Address: Nyakaleke (south-east Kinshasa, Congo DR (as of Mwenga), South Kivu, Congo DR June 2016) Nationality: Rwanda Justification: Commander of the Second Division of FOCA/the Reserve Brigades (an FDLR armed branch). Military leader of a foreign armed group operating in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, impeding the disarmament and the voluntary repatriation and resettlement of combatants, per Security Council resolution 1857 (2008) OP 4 (b). In evidence collated by the UNSC DRC Sanctions Committee Group of Experts, detailed in its report of 13 February 2008, girls recovered from FDLR-FOCA had previously been abducted and sexually abused. Since mid-2007, FDLR-FOCA, which previously recruited boys in their mid to late teens, has been forcefully recruiting youth from the age of 10 years. The youngest are then used as escorts, and older children are deployed as soldiers on the frontline, per Security Council resolution 1857 (2008) OP4 (d) and (e). Other information: a) As of late 2014, Became acting deputy commander of FDLR/FOCA, based FDLR-FOCA Deputy Commander in 2014. Captured in Goma, DRC by Congolese security services in Nganga, North Kivu early May 2016 and transferred to Kinshasa. b) Designation: a) FDLR- FOCA Chief of Staff b) FDLR-FOCA Interim Deputy Commander. Modifications: Amended on 11 Mar 2015, 13 Oct 2016

SSID: 100-3249 Name: Murwanashyaka Ignace

Title: Dr. DOB: 14 May 1963 POB: a) Butera, Rwanda b) Ngoma, Butare, Rwanda Low quality a.k.a.: Dr. Ignace Address: Germany (in prison) Nationality: Rwanda Justification: President of FDLR, and supreme commander of the FDLR armed forces exercising influence over policies, and maintaining command and control over the activities of FDLR forces, one of the armed groups and militias referred to in paragraph 20 of Res. 1493 (2003), involved in trafficking of arms, in violation of the arms embargo. In telephone communication with FDLR military field commanders (including during the Busurungi May 2009 massacre); gave military orders to the high command; involved in coordinating the transfer of arms and ammunition to FDLR units and relaying specific instructions for use; managing large sums of money raised through illicit sale of natural resources in areas of FDLR control. According to the Office of the SRSG on Children and Armed Conflict, he held command responsibility as President and military commander of FDLR for recruitment and use of children by the FDLR in Eastern Congo. Other information: a) Arrested by German authorities on 17 November 2009. Replaced 2009 and found guilty by Gaston Iamuremye, alias «Rumuli» as President a German court on 28 September 2015 of FDLR-FOCA. Murwanashyaka’s trial for leadership of a foreign terrorist group and aiding in war crimes crimes. Received a 13-year sentence and crimes against humanity committed by FDLR troops is in DRC prison in 2008 and 2009 began Germany as of June 2016. Re-elected FDLR President on 4 May 2011 in 29 November 2014 for a German court five-year term. b) Designation: FDLR President. Modifications: Amended on 11 Mar 2015, 13 Oct 2016

SSID: 100-3261 Name: Musoni Straton

DOB: a) 6 Apr 1961 b) 4 Jun 1961 POB: Mugambazi, Kigali, Rwanda Good quality a.k.a.: IO Musoni Nationality: Rwanda
Justification: Through his leadership of the FDLR, a foreign armed group operating in the DRC, Musoni is impeding the disarmament and voluntary repatriation or resettlement of combatants belonging to those groups, in breach of resolution 1649 (2005). Other information: a) Arrested by German authorities on 17 November 2009. Musoni’s trial for war crimes and crimes against humanity committed by FDLR troops in DRC in 2008 and 2009 began on 4 May 2011 2009, found guilty in a German court. Replaced as 1st Vice- President court on 28 September 2015 of leadership of a foreign terrorist group, and received an 8-year sentence. Musoni was released from prison immediately after the FDLR by Sylvestre Mudacumura trial, having served over 5 years of his sentence. b) Designation: Former FDLR Vice President. Modifications: Amended on 11 Mar 2015, 13 Oct 2016
SSID: 100-3272 Name: Mutebutsi Jules
DOB: 1964 POB: Minembwe South Kivu, Congo DR Good quality a.k.a.: a) Jules Mutebusi b) Jules Mutebuzi c) Colonel Mutebutsi Nationality: Congo DR
Justification: Joined forces with other renegade elements of former RCD-G to take town of Bukavu in May 2004 by force. Implicated in the receipt of weapons outside of FARDC structures and provision of supplies to armed groups and militia mentioned in paragraph 20 of Res. 1493 (2003), in violation of the arms embargo. Other information: Former FARDC Deputy Military Regional Commander of 10th Military Region in April 2004, dismissed for indiscipline. In December 2007, he was arrested by Rwandan authorities when he tried to cross the border into the DRC. He has lived since in semi-liberty Reported to have died in Kigali (not authorized to leave the country).on 9 May 2014. Modifications: Amended on 11 Mar 2015, 13 Oct 2016

SSID: 100-3284 Name: Ngudjolo Mathieu Chui
DOB: 8 Oct 1970 POB: Bunia, Ituri Province, Congo DR Good quality a.k.a.: Cui Ngudjolo Address: Congo DR Nationality: Congo DR
Justification: FNI Chief of Staff and former Chief of Staff of the FRPI, exercising influence over policies and maintaining command and control over the activities of FRPI forces, one of the armed groups and militias referred to in paragraph 20 of Res. 1493 (2003), responsible for trafficking of arms, in violation of the arms embargo. According to the Office of the SRSG on Children and Armed Conflict, he was responsible for recruitment and use of children under 15 years old in Ituri in 2006. Other information: Arrested by MONUC in Bunia in October 2003. Surrendered by the Government of the DRC to the International Criminal Court on 7 February 2008. Acquitted of all charges by the ICC in December 2012. After being released from custody, 2012, and the verdict was detained upheld by Dutch authorities, and has the Appeals Chamber on 27 February 2015. Ngudjolo filed a claim for asylum in the Netherlands. The Prosecution appealed Netherlands, but was denied. He was deported to the ICC’s decision; hearings were held in October 2014 and a decision is pending as of December 2014 DRC on 11 May 2015. Modifications: Amended on 8 May 2013, 11 Mar 2015, 13 Oct 2016

SSID: 100-3290 Name: Njabu Floribert Ngabu
DOB: 23 May 1971 Good quality a.k.a.: a) Floribert Njabu b) Floribert Ndjabu c) Floribert Ngabu Ndjabu Nationality: Congo DR Identification document: Passport No. OB 0243318, Congo DR
Justification: President of FNI, one of the armed groups and militias referred to in paragraph 20 of Res. 1493 (2003), involved in the trafficking of arms, in violation of the arms embargo. Other information: Under house arrest in Kinshasa since March 2005 for FNI involvement in human rights abuses.Transferred to The Hague on 27 March 2011 to testify in the ICC Germain Katanga and Mathieu Ngudjolo trials. Applied for asylum in the Netherlands in May 2011. In October 2012, a Dutch court denied his asylum claim. In July 2014, he was deported from the Netherlands to DRC, where he was placed under arrest. Modifications: Amended on 8 May 2013, 11 Mar 2015, 13 Oct 2016
SSID: 100-3315 Name: Nsanzubukire Felicien
DOB: 1967 POB: a) Murama, Kigali, Rwanda b) Rubungo, Kigali, Rwanda c) Kinyinya, Kigali, Rwanda Good quality a.k.a.: Fred Irakeza Address: Magunda, Mwenga territory, South Kivu Kivu Province, Congo DR (as of June 2011 2016) Nationality: Rwanda Justification: Felicien Nsanzubukire supervised and coordinated the trafficking of ammunition and weapons between at least November 2008 and April 2009 from the United Republic of Tanzania, via Lake Tanganyika, to FDLR units based in the Uvira and Fizi areas of South Kivu. Other information: a) Designation: 1st battalion leader of the FDLR/FOCA, based in the Uvira-Sange area of South Kivu a) FDLR-FOCA Subsector Commander b) FDLR-FOCA Colonel. b) A member of the FDLR since at least 1994 and operating in eastern DRC since October 1998. Modifications: Amended on 11 Mar 2015, 13 Oct 2016

SSID: 100-3325 Name: Ntawunguka Pacifique
DOB: a) 1 Jan 1964 b) 1964 (approximately) POB: Gaseke, Gisenyi Province, Rwanda Good quality a.k.a.: Pacifique Ntawungula Low quality a.k.a.: a) Colonel Omega b) Nzeri c) Israel Address: Matembe Rutshuru Territory, North Kivu, Congo DR (as of June 2011 2016) Nationality: Rwanda
Justification: Commander of the First Division of FOCA (an FDLR armed wing). Military leader of a foreign armed group operating in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, impeding the disarmament and the voluntary repatriation and resettlement of combatants, in violation of Security Council resolution 1857 (2008) OP 4 (b). In evidence collated by the UNSC DRC Sanctions Committee Group of Experts, detailed in its report of 13 February 2008, girls recovered from FDLR-FOCA had previously been abducted and sexually abused. Since mid-2007, FDLR-FOCA, which previously recruited boys in their mid to late teens, has been forcefully recruiting youth from the age of 10 years. The youngest are then used as escorts, and older children are deployed as soldiers on the frontline, in violation of Security Council resolution 1857 (2008) OP4 (d) and (e). Other information: a) Designation: Commander, Operational a) FDLR-FOCA “SONOKI” Sector North Kivu «SONOKI» of FDLR- FOCA.Commander b) FDLR-FOCA Brigadier General b) Received military training in Egypt. As of late 2014, based in Tongo area, North Kivu Egypt. Modifications: Amended on 11 Mar 2015, 13 Oct 2016

SSID: 100-3344 Name: Nzeyimana Stanislas
DOB: a) 1 Jan 1966 b) 1967 (approximately) c) 28 Aug 1966 POB: Mugusa, Butare, Rwanda Good quality a.k.a.: a) Deogratias Bigaruka Izabayo b) Izabayo Deo c) Jules Mateso Mlamba Low quality a.k.a.: a) Bigaruka b) Bigurura Address: Mukobervwa, North Kivu, Congo DR (as of June 2011) Nationality: Rwanda
Justification: Deputy Commander of the FOCA (an FDLR armed branch). Military leader of a foreign armed group operating in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, impeding the disarmament and the voluntary repatriation and resettlement of combatants, per Security Council resolution 1857 (2008) OP 4 (b). In evidence collated by the UNSC DRC Sanctions Committee Group of Experts, detailed in its report of 13 February 2008, girls recovered from FDLR-FOCA had previously been abducted and sexually abused. Since mid-2007, FDLR- FOCA, which previously recruited boys in their mid to late teens, has been forcefully recruiting youth from the age of 10 years. The youngest are then used as escorts, and older children are deployed as soldiers on the frontline, per Security Council resolution 1857 (2008) OP4 (d) and (e). Other information: a) Designation: Former FDLR-FOCA Deputy commander of the FDLR-FOCA.Commander b) Disappeared while in Tanzania in early 2013. Whereabouts unknown as of late 2014 June 2016. Modifications: Amended on 8 May 2013, 11 Mar 2015, 13 Oct 2016
SSID: 100-23719 Name: Kaina Innocent
DOB: Nov 1973 POB: Bunagana, Rutshuru territory, Congo DR Good quality a.k.a.: Colonel Innocent Kaina Low quality a.k.a.: India Queen Address: Uganda (as of early 2016)
Justification: Innocent Kaina is currently a Sector commander in the Mouvement du 23 Mars (M23). He is responsible for and has committed serious violations of international law and human rights. In July 2007 the Garrison Military Tribunal of Kinshasa found Kaina responsible for crime against humanity committed in the District of Ituri, between May 2003 and December 2005. He was released in 2009 as part of the peace agreement between the Congolese government and the CNDP. Within the FARDC in 2009, he has been guilty of executions, abductions and maiming in Masisi territory. As Commander under the orders of General Ntaganda, he initiated the ex-CNDP mutiny in Rutshuru territory in April 2012. He ensured the security of the mutineers out of Masisi. Between May and August 2012, he oversaw the recruitment and training of over 150 children for the M23 rebellion, shooting the boys who had tried to escape. In July 2012 he travelled to Berunda and Degho for mobilization and recruitment activities for the M23. Other information: a) In Rwanda as of late 2014. Designation: Former M23 Deputy Commander b) Became M23 deputy commander after the flight of Bosco Taganda’s faction to Rwanda in March 2013. Fled to Uganda in November 2013. In Uganda as of early 2016. Modifications: Listed on 19 Dec 2012, amended on 11 Mar 2015, 13 Oct 2016

SSID: 100-23788 Name: Badege Eric
DOB: 1971 Address: Rwanda (as of early 2016) Nationality: Congo DR
Justification: a) According to a November 15, 2012, final report by the Group of Experts on the Democratic Republic of the Congo, “…Lt. Col. Eric Badege had become the focal point of M23 in Masisi and commanded joint operations… ” with another military leader. Additionally, “a series of coordinated attacks carried out in August [2012] by Lt. Col. Badege… enabled M23 to destabilize a considerable part of Masisi territory.” “According to former combatants, Lt Col. Badege… acted under the orders of Col. Makenga when he orchestrated the attacks. b) As a military commander of M23, Badege is responsible for serious violations involving the targeting of children or women in situations of armed conflict. According to the November 2012 Group of Experts report, there have been several major incidents of indiscriminate killings of civilians, including women and children. Since May 2012 Raia Mutomboki, under the command of M23, have killed hundreds of civilians in a series of coordinated attacks. In August, Badege carried out joint attacks which involved the indiscriminate killing of civilians. The November Group of Experts report states that these attacks were jointly orchestrated by Badege and Colonel Makoma Semivumbi Jacques. According to the Group of Experts Report, local leaders from Masisi stated that Badege commanded these Raia Mutomboki attacks on the ground. c) According to a July 28, 2012, Radio Okapi article, “the administrator of Masisi announced this Saturday, July 28th, the defection of the commander of the 2nd Battalion of the 410th Regiment FARDC base Nabiondo, about thirty kilometers northwest of Goma in North Kivu. According to him, Colonel Eric Badege and more than a hundred soldiers headed Friday to Rubaya, 80 kilometers north of Nabiondo. This information has been confirmed by several sources.” d) According to a November 23, 2012 BBC article, M23 was formed when former members of the CNDP who had been integrated into the FARDC began to protest against bad conditions and pay, and lack of full implementation of the March 23, 2009 peace deal between the CNDP and the DRC that led to the CNDP’s integration into the FARDC. e) M23 has been engaged in active military operations in order to take control of territory in eastern DRC, according to the November 2012 IPIS report. M23 and FARDC fought over control of several towns and villages in eastern DRC on July 24 and July 25, 2012; M23 attacked the FARDC in Rumangabo on July 26, 2012; M23 drove FARDC from Kibumba on November 17, 2012; and M23 took control of Goma on November 20, 2012. f) According to the November 2012 Group of Experts report, several ex-M23 combatants claim that M23 leaders summarily executed dozens of children who attempted to escape after being recruited as M23 child soldiers. g) According to a September 11, 2012 report by Human Rights Watch (HRW), a Rwandan man, 18, who escaped after being forcibly recruited in Rwanda told HRW that he witnessed the execution of a 16-year old boy from his M23 unit who had tried to flee in June. The boy was captured and beaten to death by M23 fighters in front of the other recruits. An M23 commander who ordered his killing then allegedly told the other recruits “[h]e wanted to abandon us,” as an explanation for why the boy had been killed. The report also states that witnesses claimed that at least 33 new recruits and other M23 fighters were summarily executed when they attempted to flee. Some were tied up and shot in front of other recruits as an example of the punishment they could receive. One young recruit told HRW, “[w]hen we were with M23, they said [we had a choice] and could stay with them or we could die. Lots of people tried to escape. Some were found and then that was immediately their death.” Other information: He fled to Rwanda in March 2013 and is still living there as of early 2016. Modifications: Listed on 5 Feb 2013, amended on 11 Mar 2015, 13 Oct 2016

SSID: 100-23793 Name: Runiga Jean-Marie Lugerero
DOB: a) 1960 (approximately) b) 9 Sep 1966 POB: Bukavu, Congo DR Good quality a.k.a.: Jean-Marie Rugerero Address: Rubavu / Mudende, Rwanda
Justification: a) A July 9, 2012 document signed by M23 leader Sultani Makenga named Runiga as the coordinator of the political wing of M23. According to the document, Runiga’s appointment was prompted by the need to ensure the visibility of the M23 cause. b) Runiga is named as the “President” of the M23 in postings on the group’s website. His leadership role is corroborated by the November 2012 Group of Experts report, which refers to Runiga as the “leader of the M23”. c) According to a December 13, 2012 Associated Press article, Runiga showed the Associated Press a list of demands that he said will be presented to the Congolese government. Included in the demands are the resignation of Kabila and the dissolution of the national assembly. Runiga indicated that if given the opportunity, M23 could retake Goma. “And at this time we will not retreat,” Runiga told the Associated Press. He also indicated that M23’s political branch should resume its control of Goma as a precondition to negotiations. “I think our members who are in Kampala represent us. In due time I will be there, too. I am waiting for things to be organized and when Kabila will be there, I will go, too,” Runiga said. d) According to a November 26, 2012 Le Figaro article, Runiga met with DRC President Kabila on November 24, 2012 to begin discussions. Separately, in an interview with Le Figaro, Runiga stated, “M23 is composed primarily of former FARDC military members who defected to protest the non-respect of the March 23, 2009 accords.” He added, “M23’s soldiers are deserters from the army who left with their arms in hand. Recently, we recovered a lot of equipment from a military base in Bunagana. For the moment, this allows us to regain territory each day and to repel all the attacks from the FARDC. Our revolution is Congolese, led by the Congolese, for the Congolese people.” e) According to a November 22, 2012 Reuters article, Runiga stated that M23 had the capacity to hang on to Goma after M23’s forces were bolstered by mutinying Congolese soldiers from the FARDC: “Firstly we have a disciplined army, and also we have the FARDC soldiers who’ve joined us. They’re our brothers, they’ll be retrained and recycled then we’ll work with them.” f) According to a November 27, 2012 article published in The Guardian, Runiga indicated that M23 would refuse to obey a call by regional leaders of the International Conference of the Great Lakes to leave Goma in order to pave the way for peace talks. Instead, Runiga stated that M23’s withdrawal from Goma would be the result, not a precondition, of negotiation. g) According to the 15 November 2012 Final Report of the Group of Experts, Runiga led a delegation that travelled to Kampala, Uganda on July 29, 2012 and finalized the M23 movement’s 21-point agenda ahead of anticipated negotiations at the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region. h) According to a November 23, 2012 BBC article, M23 was formed when former members of the CNDP who had been integrated into the FARDC began to protest against bad conditions and pay, and lack of full implementation of the March 23, 2009 peace deal between the CNDP and the DRC that led to the CNDP’s integration into the FARDC. i) M23 has been engaged in active military operations in order to take control of territory in eastern DRC, according to the November 2012 IPIS report. M23 and FARDC fought over control of several towns and villages in eastern DRC on July 24 and July 25, 2012; M23 attacked the FARDC in Rumangabo on July 26, 2012; M23 drove FARDC from Kibumba on November 17, 2012; and M23 took control of Goma on November 20, 2012. j) According to the November 2012 Group of Experts report, several ex-M23 combatants claim that M23 leaders summarily executed dozens of children who attempted to escape after being recruited as M23 child soldiers. k) According to a September 11, 2012 report by Human Rights Watch (HRW), a Rwandan man, 18, who escaped after being forcibly recruited in Rwanda told HRW that he witnessed the execution of a 16-year old boy from his M23 unit who had tried to flee in June. The boy was captured and beaten to death by M23 fighters in front of the other recruits. An M23 commander who ordered his killing then allegedly told the other recruits “[h]e wanted to abandon us,” as an explanation for why the boy had been killed. The report also states that witnesses claimed that at least 33 new recruits and other M23 fighters were summarily executed when they attempted to flee. Some were tied up and shot in front of other recruits as an example of the punishment they could receive. One young recruits told HRW, “[w]hen we were with M23, they said [we had a choice] and could stay with them or we could die. Lots of people tried to escape. Some were found and then that was immediately their death. Other information: a) Designation: M23, President b) Entered the Republic of Rwanda on 16 Mar 2013. As of late 2014 2016, residing in Rwanda.Rwanda. Participated in the creation of a new Congolese political party in June 2016, the Alliance pour le Salut du Peuple (ASP). Modifications: Listed on 5 Feb 2013, amended on 8 May 2013, 11 Mar 2015, 13 Oct 2016

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